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MCQ's of MRCOG 1

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MCQ's of MRCOG 1

Post by drsaima2000 on Sat Jul 16, 2011 8:04 am

HI to all!
i'm resiting for MRCOG1 in March 2012 Inshala.i've appeared before but can't get through by1.5% in paper 1 n 1% in paper 2..
this forum is very helpful.plz all preparing for MRCOG 1 out there help me to answer these MCQ's.
Thank You

The pelvic surface of the sacrum?
- gives origin to the piriform muscles
- gives origin to the levator ani muscles
- is broader in the male than in the female
- trnasmit dorsal rami of sacral nerves
- is in contact with the anal canal
Prolactin.
- release is stimulated by TRH
- plasma levels are raised in the first trim of preg.
- release is increased by suckling.
- maybe produced by decidua.
- release is inhibited by metoclopromide.
The foll disorders and org are correctly paired.
- opthalmia neonatorum: chlamydia trachomatis
- chancroid: Haemophilus ducreyi.
- sleeping sickness: Leishmania donovani.
- ringworm: Trichenella spiralis.
- non-specific urethritis: Toxoplasma gondii.
The heart rate typically increases in response to:
- pain.
- hypoxia.
- ventilatory expiration
- increase in Intracranial pressure
- decrease baroreceptor activity
Antibodies.
- are proteins.
- are formed in the fetus before 12 weeks of Intrauterine life.
- have an average molecular weight of around 10 000 daltons.
- of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted.
- are produced by the ribosome of plasma cells.
The following disorders have an X linked pattern of inheritance.
- G6PD Deficeincy.
- Kleinfelter syndrome
- adrenogenital syndrome
- haemophilia B
- familial hypercholestroleamia.
The following are derived from the urogenital sinus:
- the bladder trigone.
- the ureters.
- the female urethra.
- greater vestibular glands.
- paraurethral glands.
In the fetal CVS
- the heart arises from endoderm
- the heart is formed by fusion of endocardial tubes.
- Cardiac pulsation is present byoxygenated blood is tranferred to the left atrium through the foramen
ovale.
- the ductus arteriosus closes during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy.
Arginine vasopressin
- reduces GFR.
- controls water loss in the Proximal renal tubule.
- is synthesised by the post pituitary gland.
- is released in response to rise in plasma osmolality.
- is released in response to fall in circulating plasma volume.
Renin
- is secreted by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal coretx.
- is a proteolytic enzyme.
- is secreted at an increased rate if the renal perfusion pressure falls.
- acts upon circulating angiotensinogen.
- is released in response to an increase in extracellular fluid volume
Actinomyces israelii
- is a rickettsia.
- forms yellow granules in pus.
- is a commensal in the mouth.
- is a commensal in the vagina.
- is usually resistant to penicillin.
Diseases caused by spirochaetes include.
- Weil's disease.
- lymphogranuloma venereum
- pinta
- Vincent's angina.
- bilharzias
The following are inherited as autosomal recessive conditions:
- tuberous sclerosis.
- phenylketonuria.
- achondroplasia
- sickle cell anaemia.
- Von gierke's disease.
Antibodies play an important part in the development of:
- phagocytosis.
- Mantoux responce.
- erythroblastosis fetalis.
- hyperemesis gravidarum
- anaphylaxis
chemical mediators concerned in the production of an inflammatory
response include:
- 5-hydroxytryptamine
- aldosterone.
- glucocorticoids.
- bradykinin
- leukotreines
The parathyroid gland.
- originate from the pharyngeal cleft ectoderm.
- secrete parathyroid hormone via the chief( principal) cells.
- secrete calcitonin via the oxyphil cells.
- may become hyperplastic in the presence of intestinal malabsorption.
- may develop adenomas in association with islet cell tumour of the
pancreas
In the abdominal wall:
- the rectus abdominis muscle is attched to the crest of the pubis.
- the post border of the external oblique muscle ends in the linea
semilunaris.
- the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle takes part in the
formation of the conjoint tendon.
- the inferior epigastric artery is a branch of the internal iliac artery.
- the conjoint tendon blends medially with the anterior layer of the
rectus sheath.
The urogenital sinus in the female gives rise to the following:
- ureter
- paraurethral glands
- Bartholin's gland
- urachus
- Gartner's duct.
Concerning sex hormone:
- the ovary secretes androstenedione.
- The ovary secretes testosterone
- The ovary secretes dihydrotestosterone.
- SHBG conc. are higher in women more than men
- Androgens bound to protein have high biological activity.
Features of congenital rubella include:
- excretion of virus by the neonates.
- hepatomegaly
- excessive production of growth hormone.
- cataract
- deafness.
Clomifene citrate:
- is an anti-androgens.
- does not stimulate ovulation directly.
- can produce visual disturbance.
- is genereally prescribed throughtout the proliferative phase of the
menstrual cycle.
- in the treatment of ovulation increases the risk of multiple pregnancy.
The foll are cytotoxic alkylation agents:
- Cyclophosphamide.
- mercaptopurine
- chlorambucil
- fluorouracil
- methotrexate.
If a distribution of results is markedly skewed to the left:
- the mean is the same as the 50th centile.
- the same number of values lie on either side of the median.
- the mode is equal to the median.
- the student's t test should be used to compare the distribution with
another.
- logarithmic transformation of the result will produce a distribution
closer to the normal.
Corcerning the analysis of clinical trials:
- the 95% confidence interval indicates the range within which 19 out of
20 values will lie.
- The P value illustrates how often the result would be expected to occur
by chance.
- c)b The conventional level of statistical significance is set of P<0.005
- In a randomised trial, there must be equal numbers of results in each
arm of the study.
- A relative risk reduction of 60% is significant irrespective of the value
of P.
The following substance are normally synthesized in the liver:
- glucagon
- vitamin A
- cholesterol.
- immunoglobulins
- prothrombin
The pineal gland:
- is situated at the anterior end of the 3rd ventricles.
- is innervated by the parasymphathetic nervous system.
- produces melatonin.
- maybe calcified in the adults.
- is most active during daylight.
In congenital adrenal cortical hyperplasia.
- The commonest deficiency is C18 hydroxylase.
- plasma cortisol concentration is raised.
- urinary excretion of 17 oxysteroids is elevated.
- dexamethasone will suppress the urinary excretion of 17 oxysteroids.
- there is no virilising effects.
28)The following are RNA containing virus:
- coxsackie
- influneza
- mumps
- herpes simplex.
- cytomegalovirus.
Listeria monocytogenes:
- is a gram negative organism.
- is sensitive to ampicillin.
- may cause a transplacental infection.
- is sexually transmitted.
- can be cultured from a high vagina swab.
actinomyces israelii.
- is a fungus.
- forms yellow granules in pus.
- is a mouth commensal
- occurs in association with IUCD.
- is resistant to penicillin.
The following drugs may cause enlargement of the fetal thyroid gland:
- methyldopa
- thyroxine
- carbimazole
- propranolol
- propylthiouracil
The following statements about anticoagulant are correct:
- Heparin inhibits the action of thrombin
- The action of heparin is antagonised by vitamin K
- Heparin increases antithrombin III activity.
- The effects of anticoagulants are decreased by metronidazole.
- Warfarin is greater than 80% protein bound in plasma
The following drugs and side effects are associated:
- methydopa: depression
- paracetamol: thromboembolism
- indomethacin: peptic ulcer
- prednisolone: osteoporosis.
- ritodrine: hypoglycemia
Haematopoiesis in the fetus:
- results in nucleated erythrocytes early in development.
- occurs in the yolk sac in the first month.
- does not occur in the bone marrow until term.
- is predominantly hepatic during the 4th month.
- does not require folic acid.
Early blood borne dissemination is characterised feature of:
- carcinoma of the endometrium.
- osteosarcoma
- basal cell carcinoma
- carcinoma of the cervix
- choriocarcinoma.
The following cells maybe phagocytic:
- neutrophils.
- kupffer cells
- monocytes
- Hofbauer cells.
- plasma cell.
The following are premalignant conditions:
- diverticular disease of the large bowel.
- ulcerative colitis.
- pulmonary asbestosis.
- Paget's disease of the bone.
- condylomata of the vulva
In the pituitary gland:
- the anterior lobe is smaller than the posterior lobe.
- the posterior lobe is ectodermal in origin.
- the acidophil cells produces oxytocin.
- the basophil cells produce growth hormone.
- the blood supply is derived from the internal carotis artery.
The obturator artery:
- branches from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery.
- passes through the greater sciatic foramen.
- is crossed by the ureter.
- supplies the hip joint.
- may be replaced by a branch of the superior epigastric artery.
In congenital adrenal hyperplasia:
- the commonest cause is a deficiency of 21 hydroxylase.
- the plasma cortisol conc is increased.
- there may be excessive secretion of 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone.
- sodium retention is characteristic.
- blood cathecholamine conc are increased.
In the fetal lung:
- bronchial cartilage formation commences at 18-24 weeks of gestation.
- type II alveolar cells first appear at 16-20 weeks gestation.
- sphingomyelin is the most common phospholipid present at term
- phospholipid release is increased by endogenous adrenaline.
- phospholipid production is decreased by exogenous corticosteroids.
In radiotherapy
- 1 gray is equivalent to 1 joule/kg.
- the skin usually receives a greater dose of radiation than the
underlying tissues.
- the major effect of radiation energy is to damage the cytoplasm of the
cell.
- cells in tissues which are hypoxic are more vulnerable to radiation.
- Radiation induced changes in tissues may take 6 weeks to develop.
Concerning the adrenal glands
- cortex is derived from neural crest cells.
- Zona fasiculata secretes aldosterone.
- Cortical adenomas may cause Cushing syndrome.
- Neuroblastoma arise in the medulla.
- Addison's disease may result from autoimmune destruction of the
cortex.
The following are autosomal recessive:
- neurofibromatosis.
- cystic fibrosis.
- phenylketonuria
- polyposis coli
- sickle cell anaemia
Uterine fibroids:
- are defines histologically as fibromyxomas.
- arise from endometrial stroma
- maybe associated with polycythamia.
- predispose to endometrial hyperplasia.
- are liable to sarcomatous change in about 5% of cases.
growth of the foll tumors are hormone dependent:
- squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
- breast adenocarcinoma.
- uterine leiomyoma.
- prostatic adenocarcinoma
- testicular carcinoma
Surfactants:
- is formed mainly in the placenta
- levels in amniotic fluid diminish after 33 weeks of gestation
- formation can be inferred from the lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio in
amniotic fluid.
- contains palmitic acid
- decreases the surface tension in pulmonary alveoli.
Intracellular fluid differs from Extracellular fluids in that:
- it forms the major proportion of total body water.
- its volume can be measured easily.
- it has a higher concentration of potassium than of sodium.
- its volume is regulated primarily by the kidneys.
- it has a higher phosphate concentration.
The Anal canal:
- has an upper part which is innervated by the inferior hypogastric
plexus.
- has a lower part which is supplied by the superior rectal artery
- drains lymph to the superficial inguinal nodes from its upperpart.
- has its internal sphincter innervated by the infecrior rectal nerve.
- has a superficial part of its external sphincter attached to the coccyx.
The right ovarian artery:
- Arises from the abdominal aorta above the renal artery.
- passes posterior to the 3rd (horizontal) part of the duodenum
- passes post to the genitofemoral nerve.
- supplies the right ureter.
- anastomoses with the right uteriVulva supplied by:
- Internal pudendal artery.
- Inferior rectal artery.
- Genitofemoral artery
- obturator artery
- femoral artery..
This is a question outside past papers..All r false Except internal
pudendal artery..
The vagina:
- has an anterior wall longer than the post wall.
- contains mucus secreting glands in its epithelium.
- is related in its lower third to the bladder base.
- during reproductive life has an acid pH.
- is derived from mesonephric duct.
The right ureter:
- is approx 50cm in length.
- ia partly covered by duodenum
- crosses the genitofemoral nerve.
- enters the bladder anteromedially.
- receives part of its blood supply from the uterine artery.
After birth:
- allantois froms median umblical ligament
- umbilical vein forms medial umbilical ligament.
- umbilical artery forms superior vesical artery.
- ductus venosus forms the ligamentum teres.
- ductus arteriosus forms the arch of the aorta.
In spermiogenesis:
- primary spermatocytes undergo reduction division.
- primary spermatocyte gives rise to 4 spermatids.
- whole process of spermatogenesis in man takes 6-7 days.
- grossly abnormal spermatozoa may be found in fertile semen.
- spermatids are haploid.
In the human male, dihydrotestosterone:
- is a precursor of testosterone.
- has one-tenth of the ptency of testosterone.
- is responsible for involution of the Mullerain system.
- is responsible of the male external genitalia.
- binds to an intracellular receptor.
In Human lactation:
- estrogens promote development of breast lobules.
- estrogen promotes milk producing effect of prolactin on the brest,
- human placental lactogen is essential for milk synthesis.
- prolactin stimualtes gonadotrophin release.
- oxytocin causes milk ejection,
Concerning testicular hormones:
- testosterone reduces plasma LH conc.
- Inhibin stimulates LH production.
- Estrogen are formed in the testis.
- Testosterone is converted to dihyrotestosterone by 5 alpha reductase.
- Testosterone in plasma is predominantly bound to albumin.
Epidermal growth factor:
- is mitogenic.
- synthesis is stimulated by estradiol.
- is a steroid molecule.
- is found in endometrium.
- binds to a receptor on the nuclear membrane.
folic acid:
- deficiency causes megaloblastic bone marrow..
- is hydroxycobalamin.
- is present in green vegetables.
- is predominantly absorbed from the large intestine.
- is destroyed by boiling water.
Doppler Ultrasound:
- is used to monitor fetal breathing.
- is used in fetal HR monitors.
- can be used to measure blood velocity in the fetus.
- measure proton relaxation times.
- requires injection of contrast agents.
The following are structural aberration of chromosomes:
- deletions.
- inversions.
- aneuploidy.
- polyploidy.
- translocation.
Messenger RNA
- synthesis is dependant on RNA polymerase.
- is an exact copy of sense DNA.
- contains exons.
- is measured by western analysis.
- translationoccurs in the nucleus.
In tumors of the bones:
- primary malignancy is more common than 2ndry malignancy.
- osteoma rarely present in skull bones.
- osteosarcoma is associated with Paget's disease of bone.
- lymph node metastases are unusual.
- simple bone cysts have a strong tendency to recur.
Concerning the rectus sheath.
- Above the costal margin rectus abdominis lies on the costal cartilages.
- Below the arcuate line the internal oblique splits to enclose rectus
abdominis.
- It contains the musculophrenic artery.
- It is innervated by the ilioinguinal nerve
- Pyramidalis is innervated by the subcostal nerve.
The external iliac artery.
- Enters the thigh anterior to the inguinal ligament.
- at its origin is crossed by the ureter.
- at its origin is crossed by the ovarian vessels.
- Lies medial to the external iliac vein at its distal end.
- gives rise to the deep external pudendal artery.
Action of Insulin include stimulation of:
- glycogenolysis by the liver.
- cellular uptake of amino acids.
- entry of glucose into neurons.
- d)entry of glucose into adipose tissue.
- cellular uptake of potassium.
Metronidazole:
- is effective against Giardia lamblia.
- is effective when administered per rectum
- should not be administered intravenously.
- is usually effective against Entamoeba histolytica.
- interferes with ethanol metabolism.
Amniotic fluid:
- at term is hyperosmolar compared to fetal plasma.
- normally contains maternal and fetal cells.
- contains a higher concentration of alpha feto protein at 16 weeks than
at term.
- contains bilirubin.
- contains phospholipids.
Chromosomes: - are found in the same numb in all mammalian cells.
- can be analysed more quickly from a blood sample than from an
amniotic fluid sample.
- can be reliably identified by their length.
- the Y chromosome is larger than the X chromosome.
- DNA content is doubled during the S phase of the cell cycle.
In cystic fibrosis, abnormalities are seen in the
- pancreas
- salivary glands.
- brain
- kidneys
- ileum
Neutrophil polymorphs at the site of inflammation are capable of the
following:
- Phagocytosis.
- production of oxygen free radicals.
- replication
- fusion to form giant cells.
- antibody production
In the statistical analysis of any group of numericals
- the mean is always less than the mode
- standard deviation is always greater than the standard error
- the median value lies at the midpoint of the range
- the standard error of the mean is independent of the total
number of observations
- there are the same number of observations greater than and
less than the median value
In a randomised double blind trial comparing a new drug with a
placebo
- the patient will be taking either of two drugs
- patients can choose their mode of treatment
- doctors prescribing treatment decide which patients take the
new drug
- a large trial is more likely to give a statistically significant result
than a small trial
- half of the patients will take the new drug
In a trial of oral hypoglycaemic agents 42 patients were given drug A
and 38 drug B . blood glucose conc. were measured befor and after a
single dose of the drug. Drug B apparently caused greater fall in the
blood glucose conc. (P=0.06)
- these results reach an accepted level of statistical significants
- Non- parametric statistical analysis bshould be used if datd are
not normally distributed
- In biological terms drugs A and B have been shown to be eqully
effective
- 6% more patients responded to drug A than drug B
- Unequal numbers in the two groups invalidate the trial
The following statistical statements are correct
- In the normal distribution the value of the mode is 1.73 * that
of the median
- In a distribution skewed to the right, the mean lies to the left to
the median
- In the series 2;7;5;2;3;2;5;8, the mode is 2
- Student's test is designed to correct for skewed distributions
- the Chi-squared test may be used when data are not normally
distributed

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