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MRCOG 1 previous years 2

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MRCOG 1 previous years 2

Post by mandible on Wed Feb 24, 2010 2:34 pm

September 2000


1- The oxidation of pyruvate to carbon dioxide .
a- occurs exclusively in mitochondria ...................................................T
b- can occur under anaerobic conditions ...............................................F
c- involves intermediates that are also involved in amino acid catabolism.......T
d- is regulated by the concentration of acetyl coenzyme A in the cell .......T
e- is imparied in thiamine deficiency states ...........................................T

2- Enzyme activity can be modified by ...
a- concentration of substrate ...............................................................T
b- concentration of product ..................................................................T
c- PH ..................................................................................................T
d- temperature ...................................................................................T
e- concentration of coenzyme ..............................................................T

3- The rate of transfer of a substance into a cell by active transport ..
a- may be unrelated to concentration gradient ......................................T
b- is dependent upon molecular size .....................................................F
c- is temperature dependent ...............................................................T
d- has a fixed upper limit ...................................................................T
e- is not reduced by the presence of a structurally similar substance .........T

4- Fatty acids reaching the liver from the fat stores may be ....
a- converted to glucose .......................................................................F
b- conjugated with sulphate .................................................................F
c- metabolised in the tricarboxylic acid cycle .........................................T
d- incorporated into endogenous triglyceride .........................................T
e- converted into ketones ....................................................................T

5- Concerning folic acid .......
a- it is a water soluble vitamin ............................................................T
b- conversion of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate is inhibited by methotrexate ...............T
c- red cell folate concentration can be reduced by phenytoin ...................T
d- tetrahydroflic acid is a carrier of 1- carbon units .................................T
e- it is involved in synthesis of purines ..................................................T

6- Effects of insulin include ...
a- increase in cellular growth ..............................................................T
b- increased hepatic glycogen synthesis ................................................T
c- decreased glycogen synthesis in muscle ...........................................F
d- increased uptake of potassium ions in muscle ..........................................T
e- increasedd uptake of potassium ions in adipose tissue .........................T

7- Surfactant .....
a- is a carbohydrate .........................................................................F
b- contains significant amounts of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate ....................F
c- is produced by type II alveolar epithelial cells .................................F
d- is present in the fetal lung at 24 weeks of gestation .........................T
e- production in the fetus increased by glucocorticoids ..........................T

8- Histamine ...
a- is identical to bradykinin ................................................................F
b- is a derivative of histadine .............................................................T
c- increases capillary permeability ......................................................T
d- promotes gastric acid secretion .......................................................T
e- inhibits the secretion of pepsin ........................................................F

9- Cholesterol is ........
a- synthesised in the liver ..................................................................T
b- a C - 19 compound .......................................................................F
c- synthesised from acetate ...............................................................T
d- a major constituent of high density lipoproteins ................................F
e- predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine ................................F

10- Vitamin K is involoved in the formation of .....
a- fibrinogen .....................................................................................F
b- factor VIII ....................................................................................F
c- factor IX .....................................................................................T
d- prothrombin .................................................................................T
e- heparin ........................................................................................F

11- Plasma albumin binds the following .
a- free fatty acids ..............................................................................T
b- triglycerides .................................................................................F
c- oestradiol ......................................................................................T
d- bilirubin ........................................................................................T
e- iron ions .......................................................................................F

12- Within 48 hours of a major surgical operation there is an increase in ..
a- adrenocorticotrophin secretion ........................................................T
b- aldosterone secretion ......................................................................T
c- arginine vasopressin secretion .........................................................T
d- sodium excretion ...........................................................................F
e- potassium excretion .......................................................................F

13- Metabolic acidosis .....
a- can result from potassium deficiency ..............................................F
b- can result from excess consumption of sodium bicarbonate ...............F
c- leads to an alteration in plasma bicarbonate levels ............................T
d- occurs after the adiministration of ammonium chloride ......................F
e- can be caused by persistant vomiting ...............................................F

14- Conjugated bilirubin ...
a- is produced from haemoglobin .......................................................F
b- is a constituent of the amniotic fluid in the second trimester ..............F
c- is lipid soluble ...............................................................................F
d- is conjugated by the action of alkaline phosphatase .........................F
e- has a normal blood level of about 500 mg/L ....................................F

15- Ribonucleic acid (RNA) .
a- contains deoxyribose .......................................F
b- is composed of two mucleotide units ...............................................F
c- is the main constituent of human chromosomes ................................F
d- is the main constituent of ribosomes ................................................T
e- is required during protein synthesis .......................................T

16- Alkalosis can be caused by ...
a- excessive vomiting .......................................................................T
b- cardiac failure ................................................................................F
c- hyperventilation .............................................................................T
d- hyperaldosteronism ........................................................................T
e- therapeutic doses of magnesium trisilicate ........................................T

17- In the human , neonate , compared with the adult .
a- the liver has less ability to conjugate bilirubin ...................................T
b- the blood brain barrier is less permeable to bilirubin .........................F
c- heat regulation is more effective .....................................................F
d- red blood cells have greater affinity for oxygen ................................T
e- the haemoglobin concentration is greater ........................................T

18- 2,3 diphosphoglycerate ...
a- is present at higher concentration in maternal erythrocytes than fetal erythrocytes ............T
b- binds to HbA more avidly than to HbF .............................................T
c- increases the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen ..............................F
d- is phospholipid ..................................................................................F
e- is synthesised by the pentose phophate pathway .............................T

19- The parencymal cells of the liver ....
a- can convert fructose to glucose .......................................................T
b- synthesis urea ..............................................................................T
c- cojugate bilirubin ..........................................................................T
d- excrete bromsulphthalein ..............................................................T
e- synthesis cholesterol .....................................................................T

**** March 2001 .....

1- Uric Acid ..

a- is formed from the breakdown of purines .............................................T
b- is raised is serum during normal pregnancy ...........................................F
c- is increased in serum during thiazide diuretic therapy ...........................T
d- is reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubule ............................................T
e- is excreted unchange in the urine ........................................................T


2- The level of serum uric acid characterisitically ........
a- falls with starvation .............................................................................F
b- is higher in men than women ...............................................................T
c- rises on taking corticosteriod therapy ..................................................F
d- falls on treatment with 5g of aspirin daily ....................................................T
e- increases in acute leukaemia .............................................................T

3- Renal sodium retention is favoured by .........
a- a high glomerular filtration rate ...........................................................T
b- increased secretion of renin ...............................................................T
c- haemoconcentration ..........................................................................T
d- expansion of plasma volume ................................................................F
e- a low renal blood flow ........................................................................T

4- Deficiency of the following substances and diseases are correctly matched ..
a- thiamine : pellagra ...........................................................................F
b- cyanocoblalmine : microcytic anaemia ..................................................F
c- niacin : beriberi ...............................................................................F
d- folates : sprue ................................................................................................T
e- ascorbic acid : night blindness ...........................................................F

5- Fetal pulmonary surfactant ...
a- contains less than 10% lipid ...............................................................F
b- can be detected in amnioticfluid ........................................................T
c- contains phosphatidylglycerol ............................................................T
d- is predominantly dipalmitol-phosphatidylcholine .....................................T
e- is more than 40% albumin .................................................................F

6- Potassium ............
a- is mainly intacellular ........................................................................T
b- plasma levels vary in proportion to intracellular levels ............................F
c- plasma levels are decreased in Addison's disease ..................................F
d- plasma levels are increased in diabetic ketoacidosis ..............................T
e- deficiency occurs with prolonged vomiting ..........................................T


7- In the neonate at birth ....
a- oxygenated haemoglobin is a less effective buffer than deoxygenated haemoglobin .........T
b- more than 50% of the circulating haemoglobin is HbF ...............................T
c- oxygen dissociation from haemoglobin is promoted by acidosis ........................T
d- the total haemoglobin concentration is generally above 15g/dl .........................T
e- red blood celll 2,3 diphosphoglyceric acid is absent ....................................F

8- DNA ....
a- contains no cytosine ........................................................................F
b- has a background of ribose ..............................................................F
c- is usually single stranded in mammalian cells ...................................F
d- is cleaved by restriction enzymes .....................................................T
e- irrversibly damaged in vitro by heating to 75C ...................................F

9- Glycogen ........
a- is a polymer of glucose residues .......................................................T
b- is predominantly found in cytoplasm ...............................................T
c- is mainly stored in the liver ................................................................T
d- is cleaved by phosphorylase to glucose - 1- phosphate ...................T
e- breakdown is inhibited by adrenaline ...............................................F

10- Biochemical abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus include ...

a- increased breakdown of protein ..........................................................T
b- decreased plasma levels of free fatty acids ..........................................F
c- increased serum cholesterol concentrations .........................................T
d- decreased glycosylation of haemoglobin .............................................F
e- a decrease in the plasma concentration of low density lipoproteins .....F

11- Concerning carbohydrates ....
a- surose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose ................................T
b- cereal grains contain less than 40% starch ........................................F
c- cellulose is a fructose polysaccharide ................................................F
d- a normal diet contains less than 60 g of carbohydrate daily .............F
e- dietary carbohydrate is oxidised in the body to carbon dioxide and water .....T

12- Muscle glycogen ...
a- metabolism cannot yield free glucose ...........................................T
b- metabolism is independent of the enzyme phosphorylase ...............F
c- metabolism only generates ATP under aerobic conditions ................F
d- is entirely intracellular ...................................................................T
e- is released into the circulation in response to glucocorticoids ...........T

13- The following result in metabolic acidosis .....
a- ketoacidosis ..................................................................................T
b- muscular excercise .....................................................................T
c- renal failure .................................................................................T
d- hypoxia ..........................................................................................T
e- acute respiratory failure ................................................................T

14- L - glucose is ......
a- apentose ......................................................................................F
b- an aldose ...................................................................................T
c- a ketose ........................................................................................F
d- a mirror image of D - glucose .......................................................T
e- identical in biological activity to D - glucose ...................................F

15- Glucose .......
a- is predominantly absorbed in the terminal ileum .............................F
b- stimulates the secretion of glucagon .................................................F
c- can be synthesised from pyruvate ....................................................T
d- is a disaccharide ..........................................................................................F
e- is the only metabolic substrate for cardiac muscle .............................F

16- Massenger RNA ( mRNA ) ...
a- synthesis is catalysed by RNA polymerase II ...................................T
b- is an exact copy of sense DNA ...........................................................F
c contains exons ............................................................................................T
d- is measured by Western analysis ......................................................F
e- translation occurs in the nucleus .......................................................F

18- Concerning the genetic control of protein synthesis ...
a- mature messenger RNA contains introns .........................................F
b- A codon has 3- base sequences ......................................................T
c- each amino acid has a single codon ................................................F
d- trasfer RNA has anticodon recognition sites .....................................T
e- each transfer RNA carries a specific amino acid ..............................T

19- Concerning cells .......
a- glycosylation takes place in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum ...........T
b- low density lipoproteins attach to cell membrane receptors ................T
c- glycoproteins are present on the cytosol surface of the plasma membrane .....F
d- centrioles are composed of tubulin ......................................................T
e- nuclear heterochromatin is genetically inactive ...................................T

**** September 2001 .......

1- Ketone bodies ...

a- can be utilised by the fetal brain .....................................................F
b- include acetoacetate ........................................................................T
c- are water soluble .............................................................................T
d- are synthesised in skeletal muscle ..................................................F
e- can be utilised during starvation .....................................................T

2- Intracellular fluid differs from extracellular fluid in that .......
a- it forms the larger proportion of total body water .............................T
b- its volume can be more readily measured .........................................F
c- it has a higher concentration of potassium ..........................................T
d- its volume is more directly regulated by the kidneys ........................F
e- it has a lower concentration of sodium ................................................T

3- The oxidation of pyruvate to carbon dioxide .
a- occurs exclusively in
mitochondria ..........................................................T
b- can occur under anaerobic conditions ...............................................................F
c- involves intermediates that are also involved in amino acid catabolism.......T
d- is regulated by the concentration of acetyl coenzyme A in the cell .................T
e- is imparied in thiamine deficiency states ....................................................T

4- Creatinine ..
a- is filtered out by the glomerulus ........................................................T
b- is reabsorbed significantly by the proximal tubules ..............................F
c- plasma concentration increases after protein ingestion .........................T
d- has a plasma clearance rate equivalent to renal plasma flow ....................F
e- plasma concentration increases during the first tirmester of pregnancy ......F

5- ABO antigens are ...
a- glycoproteins ..................................................................................T
b- found only on erythrocytes ............................................................F
c- major histocompatibility antigens ...................................................F
d- not immunogenic during pregnancy ................................................F
e- located on membranes ....................................................................T

6- Haemoglobin ........
a- has four porphyrin rings .................................................................T
b- can carry four molecules of oxygen ................................................T
c- binds carbon monoxide more readily than oxygen ................T
d- is synthesised in mature erythrocytes ..............................................F
e- contains two beta chains .................................................................T

7- Iron ...
a- is altered to the ferric state after absorption .....................................F
b- is transported by apoferritin .............................................................F
c- is readily excreted by the kidney ......................................................F
d- retention in the body is enhanced by chelating agents ......................F
e- requirement during normal pregnancy is approximately 1 mg/day ....F

8- Cholecalciferol ( Vit D ) ...
a- promotes the absorption of calcium from the gut ..............................T
b- is 25-hydroxylated in the liver ..........................................................T
c- is synthesised in the skin .................................................................T
d- is 1-hydroxylated in the kidney ........................................................T
e- is the most active in the 1,25 dihydroxyl form .................................T

9- Excess .....
a- vit C causes haemorrhage .............................................................F
b- vit D causes renal faliure ...............................................................T
c- vit K causes thrombosis .................................................................F
d- vit E causes azoospermia ...............................................................F
e- vit A causes headache ...................................................................T

10- Folic acid ...
a- requires gastric intrinsic factor for its absorption .....................................F
b- daily requirement is about 40mg ..........................................................F
c- is found in higher concentration in fetal blood than in maternal blood ....T
d- deficiency leads to microcytic anaemia ...................................................F
e- is fat soluble .......................................................................................F

11- The conjugation of bilirubin ..
a- takes place in the hepatocytes .........................................................T
b- is catalysed by UDP glucuronyl transferase .......................................T
c- is inhibited by phenobarbitone ..........................................................F
d- renders it water soluble ..................................................................T
e- is imparied in aculte biliary obstruction .............................................F

12- Massenger ribonucleic acid ( mRNA ) ...
a- is a double stranded polymer .........................................................F
b- is transcribed from DNA in the nucleus ...........................................T
c- is not present in reticulocytes .........................................................F
d- contains thymine ...........................................................................F
e- is not present in oocytes ................................................................F

13- Concerning glycolysis .......
a- it is the mobilisation of stored glucose units ............................................F
b- most of the reactions occur in the mitochondria .................................T
c- two molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) are consumed per molecule of glucose .......................T
d- there is net gain of two ATP molecules from the conversion of a glucose molecule to two pyruvate molecules ..........T
e- the glucose to pyruvate pathway is present in all tissues ...........................................T

14- The following substances are normally synthesised in the liver .
a- glucagon ......................................................................................F
b- vitamin A .....................................................................................F
c- cholesterol ...................................................................................T
d- immunoglobulins ..........................................................................F
e- prothrombin .................................................................................T

15- Hyperkalemia is a characteristic finding in .............
a- primary aldosteronism .......................................................................F
b- treatment with spironolactone ..............................................................T
c- hyperparathyroidism ..........................................................................F
d- adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting tumours of the bronchus ........F
e- renal faliure ............................................................................................T
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Re: MRCOG 1 previous years 2

Post by drhmada on Thu Feb 24, 2011 7:23 am

thanks
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